ANAMIKA

'(The Blog) With No Name', perhaps best described as a stream of notes and thoughts - 'remembered, recovered and (sometimes) invented'.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

A Dutch Search

In the heart of Tripunithura town, Kerala (I live here nowadays) is an understated-ly elegant and old-looking clock-tower. I have known of it since 'time immemorial'; but it was only a few weeks back that I chanced upon a piece of descriptive text at its base. The gist: "The tower was built around 1860-70. The then Maharaja invited Dutch experts to build it. The clock is British." I had known for a long while that the Dutch had a strong presence in these parts and that 'Kalikkotta Palace' (actually a set of pleasantly roomy halls where sundry functions are held) was a Dutch construction. But I also knew the Dutch had left Cochin for good by 1800; so their being 'invited' to do some construction a lifetime after they quit was a surprise. I decided to ask around a bit.

I soon learned that Dutch architecture had made a much bigger impression in Cochin than I had imagined. For example, the Dutch remodeled the palace at Mattanchery that the Portuguese had originally built (indeed, this palace is now known as the 'Dutch Palace') and built yet another and grander palace - perhaps the first three-storey building in Kerala - on the Bolgatty island off Ernakulam. Less famously, but far more interestingly, they built another edifice - allegedly quite a beauty - barely a hundred meters from the clock tower. Whatever its original name and purpose, this building acquired a reputation for being haunted (and with it, the nickname, 'Devata Malika', approx. 'the mansion of supernaturals'); several abortive exorcisms later, it was demolished to the last brick sometime at the end of the 19th century.

With all that new info, I went to look around Old Cochin. To my surprise, the only serious Dutch remnants were (apart from the above-mentioned palace) a cemetery (locked up and forlorn-looking) and an honorable mention in front of the Fort Cochin Cathedral (to the effect that they rebuilt this church, originally set up by the Portuguese). I went over to Bolgatty but the palace there is now a star hotel - and beyond the ken of explorers with little money to splurge (*).

I had realized how little I knew about the political side of the Dutch involvement in Cochin. I searched in our library and fished out an old copy of the classic, 'Kochi Rajya Charitram' (History of Cochin State) by K.P. Padmanabha Menon (coincidentally, the centenary of this work falls this year). Overly descriptive and written in dry and old-fashioned prose, the tome defeated me. But my goals were limited to finding out what the Dutch did in Cochin - and a few facts were eventually gleaned. The gist of Menon's evaluation, as far as I could make out, is given below. For those Mallu readers of mine, here is another great online treasure of facts (thanks, Vishnu!): dutchinkerala.com.

The Portuguese came first by sea to India and brought with them the major vices of religious fanaticism and imperialism. The Dutch followed and were far more civilized and liberal in religious matters (Even Britannica makes this Portuguese vs Dutch comparison and comes up with pretty much the same verdict). The Portuguese mercilessly massacred Hajj pilgrims from Calicut, tried to force Roman Catholicism on the Suriyani Christians of Cochi and terrorized the Hindu and other local population of Goa with the Inquisition (a very broad and 'secular' spread of religious atrocities!). The Dutch were cool about religion, did not care much for imperialism and were just smart and cold businessmen and monopolists.

---------------

With specific reference to Cochin, let me give a quick account of how the Dutch became dominant - I summarize Padmanabha Menon's narrative:

There is no mention of the kingdom of Cochin in any pre-Portuguese source - it is very likely that the kingdom itself was a Portuguese setup. Whatever, from the mid-16th Century, the king of Cochin was a vassal or satrap of the Portuguese (apparently, they used to perform the coronation ceremonies of new kings in the Fort Cochin Cathedral). When the Dutch turned up in the South and set up their factories and stuff at Kollam in the mid 17th Century, Cochin was ruled by a queen and a serious civil war was brewing. This was how:

Rani Gangadharalaxmi, the queen, was growing old. She had no surviving descendents so she adopted a set of three brothers and had the eldest crowned as King by the Portuguese. A short while later, a crooked Minister by name Ramankovil poisoned her mind and got these brothers disinherited and banished and another set of four brothers adopted; and the Portuguese, who were fine with all this, crowned the new eldest prince. The banished set of brothers plotted to win back the kingdom, aided (secretly) by Paliath Achan, a disgruntled military commander, and the Zamorin of Calicut (who had his own designs on Cochin)...

Hereon, the real action begins... The second of the banished brothers, Virakeralavarma traveled to Kollam where the Dutch were securely established; the prince made a deal with the Dutch and brought them over to Cochin in a bid to overthrow Ramankovil and his Portuguese bosses. Cochin fell and Rani Gangadharalaxmi was taken hostage; three of the four brothers in the ruling faction were killed in battle; the youngest, Godavarma, swore vengeance and retreated to the South.

Ramankoil did not survive the war but Godavarma rallied his forces and with his Portuguese allies, counter-attacked Cochin. The Dutch withdrew from the city; the queen, who had agreed to reinstate the banished brothers went along with them and they set up base in Trichur. Virakeralavarma and his elder brother sailed to Colombo(**) and brought another Dutch fleet. The Portuguese were knocked out, for good. The elder brother had died at sea so Virakerala was crowned King (the Dutch did the honors).

The later careers of Gangadharalaxmi and the defeated Godavarma are not mentioned (probably the queen retired into peaceful old age and the pretender simply got lost). The Dutch controlled Cochin proper till 1795 (although unlike the Portuguese, they only made sure they got their hoards of pepper and did not micromanage how the kings went about their job inland), when they handed over their holdings to the Brits.

----------

I recalled from School history books and several other sources the names of several lady rulers - the several 'Bai's of Travancore, Umayamma Rani, Ilayidathu Rani,... But never had I heard even the name 'Gangadharalaxmi'. An online search on her gave another surprise: a certain Alathur Anujan Bhattathiripad had written a historical novel on this queen's career. In 'Touring Book Shop', Kozhikode, I found a retelling of this work by well-known children's writer Sumangala.

Even the bare sequence of actual events of those times has enough action and intrigue; but Bhattathiripad has tried to patch in a love-story side-track (let me just mention here it does not involve the queen) and that seriously damages the work. Accomplished writer Sumangala's retelling is more an exercise in precis-writing. But, despite the obvious flaws, the work retains great interest - especially in how it reinvents some characters: the queen, whom history portrays as a helpless puppet(***) is invested with great moral courage and lofty stoicism; Paliath Achan, in many narratives (especially the Portuguese ones) a selfish turncoat, becomes a noble and loyal patriot working for his 'true' masters. And Virakeralavarma is very much the Richard-the-lionheart, handsome, adept in disguises and capable of great physical bravery. Another remarkable feature of the novel is the unalloyed Dutch heroism (especially in contrast with the devious Portuguese) - during the final coronation, both Virakeralavarma and the Rani deliver eloquent eulogies for their bravery and chivalry and timely assistance.

Of course, every author reserves the right to put his own spin on his story. For example, somewhere on dutchinkerala.com is this sentence (part of the narrative on the first Dutch attack on Cochin): "a Dutch contingent, led by Captain van Reede, made a daring assault on the Mattancheri palace and arrested Rani Gangadhara Laxmi, the reigning matriarch of the Cochin Royal family."

---------

As the search proceeded, I was struck by the fact: there are hardly any Dutch surnames in present day Kerala - "we have no Burghers!" as I noted in the post on Thangasseri, a short while ago (by way of contrast, Portuguese surnames are very common in coastal Kerala). Indeed, part of the intent behind my visit to Thangasseri was to ask around about Dutch surnames. A young student there told me: "I am not much aware of Dutch surnames in these parts. Many present-day folks have dropped European surnames. For example, a 19th century ancestor of mine had the surname 'Camoens'. Our family has since dropped it."

To me, 'Camoens' sounded Dutch all right. I searched online for confirmation; to my surprise, my guess was off the mark by a thousand miles. 'Camoens' was very Portuguese; indeed, it was the surname of Portugal's National poet. His great masterpiece - the Lusiad. The Wiki article on this epic led me on to an altogether different track of memories and searches. And that will be the next post(****)!

Afterword: It is a curious fact that all sources I saw flatter the Dutch and condemn the Portuguese. But whatever their achievements in Malabar, it is a fact that Dutch immigrants did incalculable damage elsewhere to the local population - the very word 'apartheid' is Dutch. And it is also unfair to say religious fanaticism was a Portuguese import into India - it might just be that their fanaticism was more fervent and focused - and more importantly, better armed - than the ones that existed in Malabar before their arrival.

Another note: The queen's name, taken literally, is odd - Laxmi is Vishnu's wife, so joining her with Gangadhara (Siva) is inappropriate. The explanation goes: 'Laxmi' is also a generic name (to mean just "the goddess of prosperity"); 'Gangadhara' here stands for 'Gangadhara Vamsam' - the royal family of Cochin was known as 'vamsam (clan) of 'Gangadhara', since they were trustees of the Siva (Gangadhara) temple at Tiruvanchikulam. Ergo, 'Gangadharalaxmi' is to be interpreted as "the laxmi or the Gangadhara clan" - it was a regal title and not her proper name.

Yet another note: I understand that the acclaimed novel 'Lanthanbatheriyile Luthiniyakal' ('The Litanies of the Dutch Battery')by N.S.Madhavan is "the story of a small (probably fictitious) island near Cochin, where a Dutch artillery unit used to be stationed". I have not read the work but at least its name shows that traces of Dutch memories still persist in Cochin's folk memory. And I just gathered that Kerala Varma Valiya Koi Thampuran, eminent Keralan writer of the late 19th century translated a Dutch historical novel on Akbar(!) into Malayalam - unfortunately, Thampuran's work was a critical and commercial failure; I have never seen any copies.

I suspect the Dutch might have helped initiate the reclamation and layout of the very Netherlandish agrarian landscape of Kuttanad, with its canals, dykes and low-lying fields (perhaps back in the 18th century). dutchinkerala.com is silent on this although it does list several Dutch contributions to Kerala's agriculture so the suspicion may be unfounded. Of course, at least one major 'padasekharam' in Kuttanad was indeed put together in the 20th century with Dutch know-how - I recall seeing board somewhere to that effect during a recent visit.

Lest one conclude that the Dutch-Cochin dealings were consistently harmonious, let me note a legend from the Aitihyamala: A certain king of Cochin, under severe military pressure from the Dutch, sought the help of Christian priest and famous sorceror Kadamattathu Kathanar. The latter shot a magical arrow into the Dutch camp and the invaders suddenly went mad and fought and killed one another to the last man (Kathanar's arrow perfectly fits the Mahabharata description of the 'Twashtra Astra' as was mentioned here in the post on Vishwakarma)!

------------

(*) I now tend to believe that the Durbar Hall in Cochin and a few other buildings nearby - that includes a certain 'Indian Guest House' (now a residential building; I myself have stayed there for a while) - show Dutch hand. Several of more nontrivial Dutch contributions to Kerala are listed on dutchinkerala.com - their greatest contribution by far must have been the compilation of 'Hortus Malabaricus' (wiki has further details). In recent years, I have heard a Nationalistic narrative: Calculus was developed in the Kerala School of Mathematics in the 16th century and the Portuguese took the know-how to Europe and enabled its (re)discovery by Newton and others. Whatever be the truth therein, I guess the Dutch are far better candidates for the transmitter's role than the Portuguese.

(**) - this is the only instance known to me of post-medieval and pre-modern orthodox(?) Hindus 'violating' the sea - with impunity.

(***) - A source which Menon quotes says: when the Dutch first captured the Cochin palace, the aged queen was found in such sorry shape that she had to be physically lifted and carried out by a Nambuthiri.

(****) - I have seen and heard a Rock singer from Cochin named Glenn Larive. 'Larive' sounds sort of Dutch but I am not sure. As I write, I have no other candidate surnames.

3 Comments:

  • At 5:45 AM, Blogger Vishnu Vimal said…

    there is no better place to look for dutch architecture than churches from Kochi to Travancore.Especially since most the public and administrative buildings were taken over by the British who demolished/ renovated them through the course of their century old reign.Whereas the churches remained affiliated to Rome, regardless of local occupations by various European powers.If you're ever in Kottayam, try visiting the archbishop's house in changanasserry...a fine example of dutch architecture, with some features of Kerala architecture of course, but untouched for centuries, nevertheless.

     
  • At 3:50 AM, Blogger R.Nandakumar said…

    thanks vishnu.

    i have been to changanacheri and to the main church there but dont remember seeing the archbishop's palace. judging from the wiki photo, this 3-storey building bears a strong resemblance to the bolgatty palace. it's surprising that the dutch actually bothered to build and renovate so far inland - at least far from their sphere of influence.

     
  • At 1:53 AM, Blogger bellefern said…

    There are a few surnames of Dutch origin like Vanspall, Meyer, Roberts,De'coster, Bernards of some of the familiess in Quilon Kayamkulam and Fort Cochin

     

Post a Comment

<< Home